Sunday, August 10, 2008

The Beatles - Revolving

Label: Silent Sea Productions, ss023-24.v2


Complete recording dates and information for each song can be found in the notes for Disc Two. See the end of these notes for a glossary of terms used.

"REVOLVER" era demos
1. He Said, He Said home tape (0:21)
2. He Said, He Said home tape (0:35)
3. He Said, He Said home tape (0:10)
4. He Said, He Said home tape (0:45)
5. She Said, She Said home tape (0:16)
6. She Said, She Said home tape (0:20)
7. She Said, She Said home tape (1:02)
John's composition tapes were probably recorded in April or May of 1966 at his home, the tudor mansion Kenwood, in Surrey.

"REVOLVER" era sessions
8. Tomorrow Never Knows take 1, RS'95 (3:13)
The first take of the first song begun for the Revolver LP. Though take 3, recorded at the same April 6th session, was the performance the final version was based on, this raw, hypnotic track, released on the Anthology 2 set, is a formidable number in its own right.

9. Got To Get You Into My Life take 5, RM'95(a) (2:53)
10. Got To Get You Into My Life partial take 5, RM'95(b) (0:21)
Two more Anthology tracks, the first from the Anthology 2 CD and the second from the soundtrack to the Anthology video. This early, acoustic version of the song is markedly different from the brassy final release.

11. Paperback Writer take 1 (1:01)
12. Paperback Writer take 2 (2:55)
The complete session tape, since only two takes of the backing tracks were required, and everything was layered onto take 2, which is here presented with all final overdubs, no echo, and an extended ending with no fade.

13. And Your Bird Can Sing take 2 (2:13)
14. And Your Bird Can Sing SI onto take 2, RS'95 (2:12)
The version on the album was a remake of this track recorded on April 20th. Track 13 was actually recreated by digitally removing the new vocals from Track 14 (from Anthology 2), which features an obviously unusable vocal overdub by John and Paul.

15. Taxman take 11, RS'95
Yet another Anthology 2 track, this new mix of an early version of George's LP opener features different background vocal lyrics and a complete ending, rather than the faded guitar solo later edited onto the track.

16. Eleanor Rigby (Strings Only) take 14, RS'95 (2:05)
George Martin's string arrangement for Paul McCartney's ballad. The eight musicians were recorded two-per-track onto a four-track tape, which was given a stereo remix for release on Anthology 2, making it a Beatle release with absolutely no Beatles playing on it.

17. I'm Only Sleeping (Rehearsal) remake, RM'95 (0:39)
18. I'm Only Sleeping (Take 1) remake, RM'95 (2:58)
Part of an intriguing instrumental rehearsal (with vibraphone, drums and guitar) and the first of five takes of the unused remake of John's number, featuring just acoustic guitar and vocals. Both tracks are from Anthology 2.

19. For No One take 1, monitor mix (1:30)
20. For No One take 2, monitor mix (1:30)
21. For No One take 10, composite monitor mix (2:21)
22. For No One take 14, composite monitor mix (2:01)
A trip through the "For No One" sessions, beginning with the first two of ten takes of Paul and Ringo tackling the rhythm tracks, recorded May 9th. On the 16th, Paul added his vocal to take 10, and on the 19th Alan Civil added his horn part to take 14. Tracks 21 and 22 are reconstructions of takes 10 and 14 created by editing together segments from the four "monitor mixes" included in their entirety at the end of this disc (Tracks 26-29). Track 21, the most complicated reconstruction, involved about 20 such edits and includes both pre- and post-song chat. Track 22 features a different take of the May 19th horn overdub than the one that was eventually used, and since each take erased the previous attempt, this version no longer exists on the studio masters.

23. Yellow Submarine take 5, RS'95 (2:47)
An Anthology track released on the Real Love CD single, this new mix of the song restores most of Ringo's spoken intro and features virtually all the recorded sound effects that were included only here and there in the original mixes.

24. Here, There And Everywhere edit of takes 7/14, RS'95 (2:22)
An Anthology mix (also from the Real Love CD single) of an early take of Paul's song, with the later vocal backing mixed into the end of the track.

25. Here, There And Everywhere take 14, composite monitor mix (2:30)
Another track we've created by using segments from the four available "monitor mixes" (see Tracks 30-33), this one featuring some pre-song chat and a complete run-through of the finished track.

The Raw Monitor Mixes
26. For No One take 10, monitor mix (2:02)
27. For No One take 10, monitor mix (2:16)
28. For No One take 10, monitor mix (1:31)
29. For No One take 14, monitor mix (1:57)
30. Here, There And Everywhere take 14, monitor mix (2:29)
31. Here, There And Everywhere take 14, monitor mix (2:28)
32. Here, There And Everywhere take 14, monitor mix (2:02)
33. Here, There And Everywhere take 14, monitor mix (2:25)
Compiled here are the raw tracks that were used to create Tracks 21, 22 and 25. These are what have become known as "monitor mixes," tapes made by someone in the studio control room with a portable tape recorder and microphone capturing what's coming out of the control room monitor speakers. Usually these recordings were made by the Beatles themselves as an easy reference copy of a work-in-progress. In this case, whoever was running the mixing board frequently isolated individual tracks from the four-track master - playing only the lead vocal, for instance - before returning to a full mix of all the tracks. It was these "full mix" sections that were sued to piece together our "composite monitor mixes."


The mono "REVOLVER" album
It was with the Revolver sessions that the Beatles started personally overseeing the final remixing of finished tracks, but it was only the mono remix sessions they supervised, leaving the stereo remixes to George Martin and his staff. Unless otherwise noted, the lineup is lead guitar by George Harrison, rhythm guitar by John Lennon, bass guitar by Paul McCartney and drums by Ringo Starr.

1. Taxman take 12, RM5/6 (2:43)
George's composition was begun on April 21st, 1966 with the recording of takes 1-4, rhythm tracks that were not used because the next day they started all over again, ignoring the previous day's work and taping takes 1-11 of the rhythm tracks. Onto take 11 were added George's lead vocal and lead guitar and backing vocals from Paul and John (see Disc One, Track 15). The next day a tape reduction of take 11 produced take 12, onto which they added a cowbell and replaced the "anybody got a bit of money" vocals with the "Mister Wilson, Mister Heath" bit. The first mono remix, RM1, was produced on April 27th, but the track needed one or two final touches. The count-in which opens the album was added to take 12 on May 16th, after which they produced four more unused mono remixes, RM2-5. On June 21st they produced RM5 (the second) and RM6, which were edited together to produce the final master (as were RS1 and RS2, also produced this day). The need for two separate mixes to be edited together probably is explained by the decision at this point to finish the track with a faded guitar solo, using a tape copy of the guitar part from the middle eight. On the final mono mix, RM5/6, the guitar is louder in the intro count-in, while the cowbell starts earlier in the second refrain, as compared to RS1/2.

2. Eleanor Rigby take 15, RM5 (2:09)
On April 28th George Martin conducted eight musicians - a double string quartet - through takes 1-14 of his score for Paul's song (see Disc One, Track 16). Musicians were lead violin Tony Gilbert; violins Sidney Sax, John Sharpe and Jurgen Hess; violas Stephen Shingles and John Underwood and cellos Derek Simpson and Norman Jones. At the end of the session a tape reduction of take 14 created take 15. The following day, in Studio #3, Paul added his double-tracked lead vocal and John and George provided backup vocals; then mono remixes RM1-3 were produced. But Paul wasn't satisfied, and he added one final vocal overdub on June 6th. Mixing was done on June 22nd, producing RM4-5 and RS1. In RS1, the ADT is accidently continued into the beginning of "Eleanor," in the first verse.

3. I'm Only Sleeping take 13, RM6 (3:04)
Work on John's song began just before midnight on April 27th, when they recorded takes 1-11 of the rhythm tracks in Studio #3. Two nights later they were back at #3 for John to add his lead vocal (taped slow to be speeded up on playback). Or so says Lewisohn in his Complete Beatles Chronicle. But in the liner notes for the Anthology versions of the number (see Disc One, Tracks 17-18), he says that on April 29th they taped five takes of an unused remake. Whichever may be the case, they returned to the song (and Studio #3) on May 5th, when they spent six hours recording the two guitars (one ordinary, one a fuzz guitar), both playing the same parts that would be inserted backward in the final mix. The next day, in Studio #2, they added backup vocals by John, Paul and George. Tape reductions of take 11 produced takes 12 and 13, after which they produced rough mono remixes RM1-4. On May 12th, in order to get this and two other tracks off to Capitol Records for the "Yesterday"...And Today album (see Tracks 17-19 and 22-23), they produced RM5. Stereo mixing came on May 20th, when they created RS1 (for the U.S.) and RS2 (for the U.K.). Finally, on June 6th, they produced mono remixes RM5 (the second) and RM6. The four released mixes - RM5, RM6, RS1 and RS2 - all have the backwards guitar and solo guitar parts faded in and out at different times. This version, RM6, has a small amount of backward guitar in the second verse, but the most of any mix in the third verse. RM5 has no backward guitar in the second verse and less than RM6 in the third verse, while the guitar solo continues over the words "please don't" and the final guitar starts four beats later than the other mixes. RS1 has the most backward guitar in the second verse but none in the third verse, while the guitar solo starts 2 bars later but continues over the word "please." RS2 has less backward guitar than RS1 in the second verse, but more than RM6, and no backward guitar in the third verse.

4. Love You To take 7, RM5 (3:11)
Recording of George's song (known provisionally as "Granny Smith") began on April 11th, where they first recorded takes 1-6. Take 1 featured just George singing and playing acoustic guitar, and Paul singing backup. George's sitar first appeared on take 3, and then was added as an overdub onto take 6, along with a tabla (played by Anil Bhagwat), bass and fuzz guitar. A rough mono remix, RM1, was produced from take 6. On April 13th a reduction mix of take 6 produced take 7, onto which they overdubbed another George vocal, Ringo's tambourine and some Paul harmonies left out of the final version. After the session they produced RM1-3 (two with ADT, one without) which were edited together to create a master, redundantly called RM3. On May 16th they made tape copies of this RM3, calling them RM4-5. The process was repeated in stereo on June 21st, when they produced RS1-3, which were edited together for the final stereo master. The mono mix has a slightly longer final fade.

5. Here, There And Everywhere take 14, RM3 (2:26)
The song, still one of Paul's favorites, was begun on June 14th with four takes of the basic tracks. Onto take 4 they added backup vocals by Paul, John and George (although there was no lead vocal). Two days later they started again, taping takes 5-13 (see Disc One, Track 24). Onto take 13 went backup vocals by John, Paul and George and bass by Paul. A tape reduction of take 13 produced take 14, onto which was dubbed Paul's lead vocal, with the tape running slow, to be speeded up on playback. The next day they added some more Paul vocals and another guitar part, then produced RM1 (see Disc One, Tracks 24 and 30-33). Final mixing was done on June 21st, when they produced RS1-2 and RM2-3. At the end of the track, when Paul sings "You'll be there, and everywhere," in the mono mix you can hear a backup vocal "I'll be there" mistake that was mixed out of the stereo version.

6. Yellow Submarine take 5, RM5 (2:43)
May 26th saw the beginning of the song that would be Ringo's vocal contribution to the album. Takes 1-4 were backing tracks recorded in Studio #3, with John playing acoustic guitar, Paul on bass and George playing tambourine. Ringo's lead and John's, Paul's and George's backup vocals were added to take 4, all recorded with the tape running slow so they'd sound speeded up on playback. Take 4 then received a reduction mix down to take 5. On June 1st they overdubbed the various sound effects and more used throughout the track. Studio staffers John Skinner and Terry Condon swirled chains around in a metal bathtub full of water. John blew bubbles in a bucket, and various people (including Rolling Stone Brian Jones) employed various ship bells, hand bells and other items from the Abbey Road trap room. The chorus included Marianne Faithfull and Pattie Harrison. The brass backing was provided by unknown musicians. Ringo also recorded a spoken intro, with help from the other three, that was not released until Anthology (see Disc One, Track 23). The next day, June 2nd, they produced rough mono remix RM1, while the following day saw the creation of five new mono remixes, beginning with a new RM1. Stereo mixing was done on June 22nd, when they produced RS1-2. In the mono mix, the guitar starts right away, but doesn't come in until after the "in the town" lyric in stereo. The stereo mix contains more splashing sounds at the start of the third verse but less of John's backup vocal (no "life of ease").

7. She Said, She Said take 4, RM4 (2:40)
On June 21st they produced not only man of the final LP mixes, but also this last song recorded for the album. First they taped takes 1-3 of the rhythm tracks (drums, bass and two guitars). Onto take 3 was overdubbed John's lead vocal, and backup vocals by John and George. A reduction mix produced take 4, onto which was overdubbed some more guitar and John playing an organ part. RM1-3 were then produced, but the next day these were superceded by RM4 (the same session also producing RS1).

8. Good Day Sunshine take 1, RM7 (2:13)
Three takes of the rhythm tracks for Paul's song (for now called "A Good Day's Sunshine") were taped on June 8th, featuring just bass, piano and drums. Take 1 was called "best," and onto it were added Paul's lead and John's and George's backup vocals. The next day Ringo added some more drums and George Martin provided the honky-tonk piano solo (with the tape running slow, to be speeded up on playback). John, Paul and George then sang backup vocals, and all four provided handclaps. They then produced RM1-6, temporarily calling RM6 the "best." The final day of LP mixing, June 22nd, saw the production of RM7 and RS1. The stereo mix is missing the bass drum at the very end.

9. And Your Bird Can Sing edit of takes 10/6, RM9/10 (2:05)
On April 20th they taped the first version of John's song. First came two takes of the rhythm tracks - guitars and drums. Onto take 2 they overdubbed three Lennon vocals, plus two backup vocals from Paul and one from George, along with bass and tambourine (see Disc One, Tracks 13-14). Remixes RM1-5 were produced at the end of the session, but then it was decided to remake the number. On April 26th they taped takes 3-13. While take 6 provided the lead and bass guitar interplay at the very end of the song, take 10 was called the "best," and onto it were overdubbed John's lead vocal and backup vocals from Paul and George. The next day they created RM6. On May 12th RM7 and RM8 were produced from takes 10 and 6, then edited together and sent off to Capitol (see Track 18). On May 20th they similarly produced RS1 and RS2 to edit together for a final stereo master. Then on June 6th came RM9 and RM10, used for the final mono master edit. The "Yesterday"...And Today mix, RM7/8, has louder handclaps than RM9/10.

10. For No One take 14, RM8 (2:04)
On May 9th they taped takes 1-10 of the rhythm tracks (see Disc One, Tracks 19-20) of Paul's beautiful song, with the composer playing piano and Ringo drumming. Onto take 10 Paul then added a clavichord and Ringo played cymbals and maracas. On May 16th Paul overdubbed his lead vocal onto take 10 (with the tape playing slow, to be speeded up on playback) (see Disc One, Tracks 21 and 26-28), after which reduction mixes produced takes 13 and 14, skipping 11 and 12, for some reason. On the 19th Alan Civil played his horn part onto take 14 (see Disc One, Tracks 22 and 29), each take wiping out his previous attempt. On June 6th they produced RM1-6. Stereo mixing and final mono mixing was done on June 21st, producing RM7-8 and RS1.

11. Doctor Robert take 7, RM6 (2:17)
April 17th saw the beginning of work on John's song, with the taping of takes 1-7 of the rhythm tracks. Onto take 7 they overdubbed George playing maracas, John on harmonium, and piano by Paul. Vocals were added on April 19th, after which they produced RM1-3. A "Yesterday"...And Today remix, RM4, was produced on May 12th. Stereo remixing on May 20th produced RS1 (for the U.S.) and RS2 (for the U.K.), while final mono remixing on June 21st produced RM4-6. The British mono mix, RM6, has the vocals mixed louder than the American mono mix, RM4, while the U.S. version has someone, probably John, saying "Okay, Herb" at the end of the fade.

12. I Want To Tell You take 4, RM1 (2:31)
Originally dubbed "Laxton's Superb" by engineer Geoff Emerick, George's song was begun on June 2nd. First they recorded five takes of the rhythm tracks, with piano, drums and guitars. Deciding take 3 was the "best," onto it was added lead vocals by George, with backups by John and Paul; along with tambourine, maracas and more piano. Take 3 then went through a tape reduction to produce take 4 (the second), onto which they added handclaps. The next day Paul's bass track finished off the song, and they produced RM1-4, calling the first one the "best." On June 21st they produced RS1-2.

13. Got To Get You Into My Life take 9, RM8 (2:40)
On April 7th they taped takes 1-5 of the rhythm tracks, with George Martin joining them on organ. Onto take 5 they added lead vocals by Paul and backups by John and George (see Disc One, Tracks 9-10). The next day they started again, recording rhythm track takes 6-8. On April 11th they overdubbed guitar onto take 8. The song then sat until May 18th, when it received vocal and brass overdubs. The brass section consisted of Eddie Thornton (Super-olds trumpet), Peter Coe and Alan Branscombe (tenor sax), and Ian Hamer and Les Condon (trumpet). A tape reduction of take 8 produced takes 9-11, eliminating the previously recorded vocals in the process. Onto take 9 went new lead vocals by Paul, new backup vocals by John and George, and some more guitars. RM1-2 were produced at the end of the session. One more guitar passage was added on June 17th, after which they produced RM3-7. But RM7 still wasn't quite there, and on June 20th they combined it with a slightly-out-of-sync tape copy of the brass overdub to produce RM8. On June 22nd they made RS1. The final mono mix features a longer fade than RS1, which is also missing the additional brass track added to RM8. Both mixes have different overdubs of the vocal "every single day of my life" at the final fade.

14. Tomorrow Never Knows take 3, RM8 (3:03)
The last song on the album was the first one begun. In Studio #3 on April 6th they taped takes 1-3. Take 1 was a complete performance (see Disc One, Track 8), while takes 2-3 were rhythm tracks. The next day, still at #3, saw overdubs onto take 3, including John's lead vocal sent through a Leslie speaker in a Hammond organ. Also added this day were the five tape loops, with various studio personnel using pencils to spool the loops onto tape players that fed into the main console where Geoff Emerick manned the faders that fed it onto the four-track master. Among the loops were a distorted guitar that sounded like seagulls, a speeded up guitar and a wine glass. Finally on April 22nd they added George's sitar part and another Leslied Lennon vocal. On April 27th they produced RM1-9, calling RM8 the "best." On June 6th they produced RM10-12, and RM11 (see Track 20) was called the new "best," only being replcaed by the original "best" RM8 on the day the LP master was cut. Stereo remixes RS1-6 were produced on June 22nd, the last day of work on the LP. On the final mono master the tape loop track starts at full volume, while it fades in on the stereo master, which features a feedback whistle in the second vocal section (over "love is all and love is everyone") not heard on the mono mix.

The mono "REVOLVER" era single
15. Paperback Writer take 2, RM2 (2:26)
Their next A-side was recorded in two days in Studio #3 (see Disc One, Tracks 11-12). First recorded, on April 13th, were two takes of the rhythm tracks, with the second being the keeper. Onto take 2 were overdubbed Paul's lead and John's and George's backup vocals (which include "Frere Jacques"). At the end of the April 14th session they produced RM1 and RM2. Stereo mixing, which produced RS1-3, didn't occur until October 31st, 1966, when a stereo remix was needed for the Collection of Beatles Oldies LP (see also Track 23). The mono mix has louder drums and more echo, and includes Ringo's drumsticks tapping the time during the "paperback writer" vocal breaks.

16. Rain take 7, RM3 (3:00)
In Studio #3 on April 14th, after finishing up the A-side, they began work on the B-side of their next single. First they recorded takes 1-5 of the rhythm tracks, playing especially fast so the tape could be slowed down when they added overdubs, which on this day meant John's lead vocal, with the tape playing even slower so he'd sound speeded up on playback. The next day, in Studio #2, they added more vocals, bass and tambourine, in the process producing take 6 from a reduction mix of take 5. Overdubs onto take 6 produced takes 7 and 8, but 7 proved to be "best." At some point during this process George Martin came up with the idea of taking a piece of John's vocal and inserting it backwards at the end of the track. Following the session they produced RM1-4, using lots of ADT, and settled on RM3. Stereo mixing waited until December 2nd, 1969, when they produced RS1 for the Hey Jude LP.

Rare "REVOLVER" era mono mixes
17. I'm Only Sleeping take 13, RM5 (2:59)
18. And Your Bird Can Sing edit of takes 10/6, RM7/8 (2:00)
19. Doctor Robert take 7, RM4 (2:15)
When Capitol asked if they might have three new tracks to fill out their "Yesterday"...And Today set, it was agreed to send them these songs, which thus received a quick mono remixing on May 12th (see also Tracks 21-22). All three were later remixed for the mono British release of Revolver.

20. Tomorrow Never Knows take 3, RM11 (3:01)
This odd variant mix is most likely the "almost final" mono remix of the track that was scrapped in favor of the earlier RM8 on the very day the LP was being mastered.

Rare "REVOLVER" era stereo mixes
21. I'm Only Sleeping take 13, RS1 (2:58)
22. Doctor Robert take 7, RS1 (2:12)
Stereo mixes for "Yesterday"...And Today were produced eight days after the May 12th session the produced the mono versions (Tracks 17-19). Because of the editing involved in producing the "And Your Bird Can Sing" master, a separate stereo mix was not produced for the American release.

23. Paperback Writer take 2, RS? (2:17)
This alternate stereo mix (see Track 15) was released on the Hey Jude and 1962-1966 LPs. It features louder backing vocals, and has the stereo channels reversed as compared to the version on Paster Masters Volume Two.

The 1982 John Barrett remixes
24. Paperback Writer take 2, RS'82 (2:16)
25. Rain take 7, RS'82 (2:50)
These unique stereo remixes were produced by the ailing engineer John Barrett for the multimedia show used during the summer '83 Abbey Road Studios Tour.

ADT = Artificial Double-Tracking: copying a vocal to a second track, but doing it slightly out of sync so that it sounds like a second vocal.
Monitor mix = microphone recording from control room speakers.
Reduction mix = mixing a four-track tape down to one or two tracks, thus freeing up room for more overdubbing.
RM2 = official mono remix #2.
RS'95 = 1995 stereo remix, official mix number unknown.
SI = Super Imposition, an overdub added to an existing take.
Tape reduction = see Reduction mix.

Liner notes by Miles Hai.

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